Измени себя — изменится Мир вокруг



Samadhi is the life goal of many yogis. This article is an essay describing different kinds of Samadhi, ways to achieve these States and philosophical understanding of thought processes and changes in the state of consciousness.

The key role in meditation is the Desire with which a person begins it. Fool, falling asleep, awakens fool. But if a person is immersed in meditation with the only desire for enlightenment, he comes out of meditation as a sage.

Swami Rama, «Living with the Himalayan Masters»

Samadhi. How to attain Samadhi ?

The state of Samadhi is a state of enlightenment, in which the idea of ego disappears, and a person passes into a pure state of being, uniting the observer and the observed world in himself. In other words, the idea of separation disappears here. We can find first mention of Samadhi in ancient texts Upanishads, which are known as part of Vedanta philosophy. But we meet the concent of Samadhi not it first ten Upanishads – it appeares in Maitrayaniya Upanishad. Later, the term "Samadhi" entered in the Upanishads added by the yogic tradition. Thus, Samadhi is more connected with the school of yoga and Patanjali than with the ancient Vedic knowledge.

The idea of Samadhi is also known in Zen tradition. But it is believed that Samadhi, as well as Nirodhi — a state similar to Samadhi, in which the metabolism of the physical body slows down so much that the temperature decreases, any perception of time disappears — does not lead to highest knowledge. In the state of Nirodhi the body functions using the energy accumulated before this state. In the ordinary mode this energy would be enough for a couple life hours. In Nirodhi it is distributed, and it becomes enough to maintain the physical activity of the body for several days without any external source of energy renewal. However, Zen tradition does not see Samadhi as the highest form of enlightenment. Samadhi is one of the possible stages on the way to enlightenment.

But let us return to the yogic tradition. It says that Samadhi is possible through the practices of Dhyana (meditation). In order to approach this stage, you need to go through the eightfold path of Raja yoga. The eight stages of Raja Yoga are – Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, and the highest level - Samadhi.

Categorizing Samadhi

It seems that there is only one state known as Samadhi and associated with Enlightenment. That's both true and false at the same time. There are several stages of Samadhi. Samadhi a s the highest stage of Raja yoga, the main goal of all practitioners is perceived as something difficult to achieve, and therefore rarely seriously devotes themselves to the study, albeit theoretical, this aspect of yoga.

There are several stages within Samadhi:

Savikalpa Samadhi,

Nirvikalpa Samadhi,

Sahaja Samadhi.

Kevala Nirvikalpa Samadhi is a temporary stage, while Sahaja Nirvikalpa Samadhi will last a hole life.

Savikalpa Samadhi is the stage before these two kinds of Samadhi. It is a step towards real enlightenment and dis-identification with self-consciousness and ego. This condition can last from several minutes to several days. at this level consciousness has not yet united with the Absolute, but has already touched and seen it.

Nirvikalpa Samadhi is the next level of enlightenment, when the practitioner (yogi) has completely merged with the Absolute, his consciousness stopped to be separate from the Supreme. The Absolute and the yogi became one. Here a person has discovered the Atman in himself. He not only understood this, but being still in physical body - also realized and manifested the Atman.

We use terminology borrowed from ancient teachings. Patanjali himself used names such as Samprajana Samadhi (upacara samadhi) for what is known as Savikalpa and Asamprajata Samadhi (apana samadhi) for Nirvikalpa. Savikalpa is determined by cognition through the presence of consciousness, and Nirvikalpa is characterized by complete dis-identification with the so-called own consciousness and comprehension of knowledge directly, intuitively, with access to transcendence, complete absorption and dissolution in the Absolute.

Nirvikalpa Samadhi and Savikalpa Samadhi are the States of lower level enlightenment.

Before we talk about "Savikalpa" and "Nirvikalpa", lets explain the meaning of "vikalpa", because we see this component in both words. Etymology of words helps to understand the essence of the phenomenon, albeit speculative, since the practical achievement of these States is takes time, and therefore it may take years to realize what Samadhi is. So the theoretical basis for the logical understanding of these phenomena is necessary.

Vikalpa is a type of thought, or otherwise, Vritti. Vikalpa is the movements of the mind that are associated with imagination and fantasy, but it can be understood as generally distracting thoughts.

The other 4 types are:

  • Pramana is direct empirical, gained from experience knowledge.
  • Viparyaya is wrong, erroneous knowledge.
  • Nidra is movement of the mind, which can be described as"sleep without dreams". The mind is still present, it has not gone to nirodhah, but there is emptiness, inertia, the other 4 types of thoughts or movements of the mind at this time are absent. Nidra, however, is not the same as yoga Nidra.
  •  Smriti - these are movements of the mind, which can be called memory and memories of the past, with a clear awareness of the goals of external life and spiritual path.

If we talk about Nirvikalpa, then from the word itself we can understand that there is a cessation of the movement of thoughts.

Instead of Vikalpa comes Nirvikalpa, which is characterized by a complete lack of thoughts, divine Nothing, complete unity with the absolute, when internal and external thoughts are stopped. This state of delight, which in Hinduism is called Ananda, but it is not identical to the delight that we already know in earth life. This is a completely new type of spiritual ecstasy, which is inexpressible in words.

The state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi can be expressed even less through the means of verbal communication, although in order to somehow present this state to the reader as a spiritual and philosophical concept at the same time, we have no other means than the use of words. But in General, none of the States of Samadhi can be fully transferred by building a chain of verbal logical discourse.

These are the States that can be understood and realized only in the process of direct living, through the experience of being in Samadhi.

Savikalpa Samadhi is a state of unity with the Absolute, which can happen in the process of meditation on an object or image. This Samadhi is characterized by temporality - there is an indispensable return to the normal state of mind. Savikalpa can be experienced several or even many times during the practice of meditation. If you practice meditation regularly, the first level of Samadhi Savikalpa will soon be opened for you. Upon reaching Savikalpa Samadhi there is still an effort. Only when the end of the effort comes is it possible to enter the state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi.

By the way, speaking of Savikalpa Samadhi, it should be added that the achievement of this state is not related solely to the type of meditation on the object. This may be a higher order meditation, when the practitioner no longer uses his attention, focusing on external objects to enter into a state of meditation. It can focus on the inner state — it can be the mind itself, the awareness of "I am", Nadi's energy channels, etc.

Sahaja Samadhi

There is a fundamental difference between the two lower States of Samadhi and Sahaja Samadhi as the higher state of Samadhi. It consists in the fact that the state of unity with the Supreme, which was achieved in Nirvikalpa Samadhi, is not lost, and a person, being in a rough physical reality, retains the state of the highest enlightenment, dissolution in existence. It can no longer be lost. In this form of Samadhi, the adept does not lose the state of insight even during the most simple household chores. "His body has become an instrument of the soul," some gurus explain. He is one with the absolute, and the soul became an Atman, he came out of the circle of samsara. He still is in this world but for his soul, and sent here to do some unique mission.

Unlike the temporary States of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa Samadhi, Sahaja Samadhi is a state in which man exists constantly. he doesn't need to reach it or specifically enter it. Rare spiritual teachers were able to achieve this. Usually even Nirvikalpa — this is the status achieved in the course of several reincarnations, and only in this earthly incarnation after 12 years of continuous meditation practice, it is potentially possible to achieve Nirvikalpa Samadhi with the subsequent achievement of sahajananda.

When we use the word "achievement", we do not mean the desire of the ego to achieve something. Just for lack of more appropriate words to describe the highest States of consciousness it is necessary to use a more materialistic terms when the description applies to the sphere of the transcendental.

Samadhi and Enlightenment

In the philosophical concept of Buddhism there is Buddha enlightenment, called Annutara Samyak Sambodhi, similar to the concept of "Samadhi". It is more in line with Sahaja Samadhi in the tradition of yoga and Hinduism. Only after reaching Sahaja Samadhi, the movement of thoughts is completely stopped. But we must ask ourselves why we are constantly attacked by thoughts. The answer lies in such thing as karma. As long as a person works through karma, the flow of thoughts can not be completely stopped.

During meditation skillful practitioner stops the flow of mental activity, but only on time of meditation. Then, when he returns to his daily activities, thoughts come again. If we are able to control them and especially the process when there is an emotional response to some mental movements, then this is a great achievement. Here the wisdom appears. If a man reached a certain degree of awareness in his life, he can better manage his emotional reactions and direct the work of the mind.

However, one does not achieve enlightenment or Samadhi. The state of Samadhi, Sahaja Samadhi is characterized by the fact that there are no more karmic bindings, as a result of which the unconscious flow of thoughts has nowhere to appear. Only under the condition of total stopping of the unconscious, uncontrolled flow of thoughts it is possible to speak about the state of the highest enlightenment — Sahaja Samadhi.

There are different views about Samadhi, and the reader is free to decide how to treat these philosophical and psychological concepts. Let us remember the thought of Sri Raman Maharshi: "only Samadhi can open the Truth. Thoughts throw a cover on reality, and therefore it is not perceived as Such in States other than Samadhi."